OO Structured Display (Informative)

OO.1 Structured Display Use Cases

OO.1.1 Dentistry

Intra-oral radiography typically involves acquisition of multiple images of various parts of the dentition. Many digital radiographic systems offer customized templates that are used for displaying the images in a study on the screen. These templates may also be referred to as mounts or view sets. The Structured Display Object represents a standard method of encoding and exchanging the layout and intended display of Structured Displays. A structured display object created in this manner could be stored with a study and exchanged with images to allow for complete reproduction of the original exam.

  1. A patient visits a General Dentist where a Full Mouth Series Exam with 18 images is acquired. The dentist observes severe bone loss and refers the patient to a Periodontist. The 18 images from the Full Mouth Series along with a Structured Display are copied to a DICOM Interchange CD and sent with the patient to see the specialist. The Periodontist uses the CD to open the exam in his Dental Radiographic Software and consults via phone with the General Dentist. Both are able to observe the same exam showing the images on each user's display using the exact same layout.

    Intra-oral Full Mouth Series Structured Display

    Figure OO-1. Intra-oral Full Mouth Series Structured Display

  2. A patient requests cosmetic surgery to enhance their facial appearance. The case requires consultation between an orthodontist in New York and an oral surgeon in California. The cephalometric series of 2D projections constructed from a volumetric CT data set that is used for the discussion is arranged by a Structured Display for transfer between the two practitioners.

    Cephalometric Series Structured Display

    Figure OO-2. Cephalometric Series Structured Display

OO.1.2 Ophthalmology

  1. A patient in rural Canada visits a general ophthalmologist and is found to have diabetic macular edema. The general ophthalmologist would like to discuss the case with a retina specialist before performing laser surgery. A fluorescein angiogram is done with multiple retinal images taken in a timed series after an intravenous injection. The images along with a Structured Display are shared via a Health Information Exchange with a retina specialist in Calgary, who opens them using his Ophthalmology EMR software and consults via phone with the general ophthalmologist. Both physicians view the images in the same layout so the retina specialist can provide accurate guidance for treating the patient.

  2. A patient in rural Iowa visits his primary care physician for management of diabetes. Three non-mydriatic (patient's eyes are not dilated) photographs are taken of the back of each eye, and forwarded electronically along with a Structured Display to an ophthalmologist in Iowa City. The ophthalmologist reads the photos in an agreed upon layout so there is no mistake about what portion of which eye is being viewed. The ophthalmologist is able to tell the primary care physician that his patient does not need to come to Iowa City for face to face ophthalmologic care, but that there is a particular view of the left eye that should be photographed again in 6 months.

    Ophthalmic Retinal Study Structured Display

    Figure OO-3. Ophthalmic Retinal Study Structured Display

  3. A patient in rural Minnesota experiences sudden vision loss and goes to a general ophthalmologist, who acquires OCT images and forwards them electronically along with a Structured Display to a retina specialist six travel hours away. The retina specialist is able to view the images in the standard layout that he is comfortable with, and to confirm that the patient has a choroidal neovascular membrane. He determines that is would be worthwhile for the patient to travel for treatment.

    OCT Retinal Study with Cross Section and Navigation Structured Display

    Figure OO-4. OCT Retinal Study with Cross Section and Navigation Structured Display

OO.1.3 Cardiology

Cardiac stress testing acquires images in at least two patient states, rest and stress, and typically with several different views of the heart to highlight function of different cardiac anatomic regions. Image review typically involves simultaneous display of the same anatomy at two patient states, or multiple anatomic views at one patient state, or even simultaneous display of multiple anatomic views at multiple states. This applies to all cardiac imaging modalities, including ultrasound, nuclear, and MR. The American College of Cardiology and American Society of Nuclear Medicine have adopted standard display layouts for nuclear cardiology rest-stress studies.

Stress Echocardiography Structured Display

Figure OO-5. Stress Echocardiography Structured Display

Stress-Rest Nuclear Cardiography Structured Display

Figure OO-6. Stress-Rest Nuclear Cardiography Structured Display

OO.1.4 Radiology

  • A radiologist on his PACS assembles a screen layout of a stack of CT images of a current lung study, a secondary capture of a 3-D rendering of the CT, and a prior chest radiograph for the patient. He adjusts the window width / window level for the CT images, and zooms and annotates the radiograph to clearly indicate the tumor. He saves a Structured Display object representing that screen layout, including Grayscale Softcopy Presentation State objects for the CT WW/WL and the radiograph zoom and annotation. During the weekly radiology department conference, on an independent (non-PACS) workstation, he accesses the Structured Display object, and the display workstation automatically loads and places the images on the display, and presents them with the recorded WW/WL, zoom settings, and annotations.

  • A mammographer reviews a screening exam on a mammo workstation. She wishes to discuss the exam with the patient's general practitioner, who does not have a mammo-specific workstation. She saves a structured display, with presentation states for each image that replicate the display rendered by the mammo workstation (scaling, horizontal and vertical alignment, view and laterality annotation, etc.).

    Mammography Structured Display

    Figure OO-7. Mammography Structured Display