DICOM PS3.5 2018e - Data Structures and Encoding

8.2 Native or Encapsulated Format Encoding

Pixel data conveyed in the Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) may be sent either in a Native (uncompressed) Format or in an Encapsulated Format (e.g., compressed) defined outside the DICOM standard.

If Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) is sent in a Native Format, then the Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) shall be other than:

Note

These values are not permitted because they are not encodable in an uncompressed form.

Pixel Data conveyed in the Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0008) or Double Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0009) shall be in a Native (uncompressed) Format if encoded in a Standard Transfer Syntax.

Note

  1. In future, if Standard Transfer Syntaxes are defined for compression of Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0008) or Double Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0009), this constraint may be relaxed and Encapsulated Format permitted.

  2. This constraint does not apply to Private Transfer Syntaxes.

If Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) is sent in a Native Format, the Value Representation OW is most often required. The Value Representation OB may also be used for Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) in cases where Bits Allocated has a value less than or equal to 8, but only with Transfer Syntaxes where the Value Representation is explicitly conveyed (see Annex A).

Note

The DICOM default Transfer Syntax (Implicit VR Little Endian) does not explicitly convey Value Representation and therefore the VR of OB may not be used for Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) when using the default Transfer Syntax.

Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0008) is sent in Native Format; the Value Representation shall be OF, Bits Allocated (0028,0100) shall be 32, Bits Stored (0028,0101), High Bit (0028,0102) and Pixel Representation (0028,0103) shall not be present.

Double Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0009) is sent in Native Format; the Value Representation shall be OD, Bits Allocated (0028,0100) shall be 64, Bits Stored (0028,0101) and High Bit (0028,0102) and Pixel Representation (0028,0103) shall not be present.

It is not permitted to have more than one of Pixel Data Provider URL (0028,7FE0), Pixel Data (7FE0,0010), Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0008) or Double Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0009) in the top level Data Set.

Note

Pixel Data encoded in Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0008) or Double Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0009) can be considered as consisting of Pixel Cells that entirely occupy the allocated bits, and therefore do not cross word boundaries.

Native format Pixel Cells are encoded as the direct concatenation of the bits of each Pixel Cell, the least significant bit of each Pixel Cell is encoded in the least significant bit of the encoded word or byte, immediately followed by the next most significant bit of each Pixel Cell in the next most significant bit of the encoded word or byte, successively until all bits of the Pixel Cell have been encoded, then immediately followed by the least significant bit of the next Pixel Cell in the next most significant bit of the encoded word or byte. The number of bits of each Pixel Cell is defined by the Bits Allocated (0028,0100) Data Element Value. When a Pixel Cell crosses a word boundary in the OW case, or a byte boundary in the OB case, it shall continue to be encoded, least significant bit to most significant bit, in the next word, or byte, respectively (see Annex D). For Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) encoded with the Value Representation OW, the byte ordering of the resulting 2-byte words is defined by the Little Endian Transfer Syntaxes negotiated at the Association Establishment (see Annex A).

Note

  1. For Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) encoded with the Value Representation OB, the Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) encoding is unaffected by byte ordering.

  2. If encoding Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) with a Value for Bits Allocated (0028,0100) not equal to 16 be sure to read and understand Annex D.

If sent in an Encapsulated Format (i.e., other than the Native Format) the Value Representation OB is used. The Pixel Cells are encoded according to the encoding process defined by one of the negotiated Transfer Syntaxes (see Annex A). The encapsulated pixel stream of encoded pixel data is segmented into one or more Fragments, each of which conveys its own explicit length. The sequence of Fragments of the encapsulated pixel stream is terminated by a delimiter, thus allowing the support of encoding processes where the resulting length of the entire pixel stream is not known until it is entirely encoded. This Encapsulated Format supports both Single-Frame and Multi-Frame images (as defined in PS3.3).

Note

Depending on the Transfer Syntax, a frame may be entirely contained within a single fragment, or may span multiple fragments to support buffering during compression or to avoid exceeding the maximum size of a fixed length fragment. A recipient can detect fragmentation of frames by comparing the number of fragments (the number of Items minus one for the Basic Offset Table) with the number of frames. Some performance optimizations may be available to a recipient in the absence of fragmentation of frames, but an implementation that fails to support such fragmentation does not conform to the Standard.

8.2.1 JPEG Image Compression

DICOM provides a mechanism for supporting the use of JPEG Image Compression through the Encapsulated Format (see PS3.3). Annex A defines a number of Transfer Syntaxes that reference the JPEG Standard and provide a number of lossless (bit preserving) and lossy compression schemes.

Note

The context where the usage of lossy compression of medical images is clinically acceptable is beyond the scope of the DICOM Standard. The policies associated with the selection of appropriate compression parameters (e.g., compression ratio) for JPEG lossy compression is also beyond the scope of this standard.

In order to facilitate interoperability of implementations conforming to the DICOM Standard that elect to use one or more of the Transfer Syntaxes for JPEG Image Compression, the following policy is specified:

  • Any implementation that conforms to the DICOM Standard and has elected to support any one of the Transfer Syntaxes for lossless JPEG Image Compression, shall support the following lossless compression: The subset (first-order horizontal prediction [Selection Value 1) of JPEG Process 14 (DPCM, non-hierarchical with Huffman coding) (see Annex F).

  • Any implementation that conforms to the DICOM Standard and has elected to support any one of the Transfer Syntaxes for 8-bit lossy JPEG Image Compression, shall support the JPEG Baseline Compression (coding Process 1).

  • Any implementation that conforms to the DICOM Standard and has elected to support any one of the Transfer Syntaxes for 12-bit lossy JPEG Image Compression, shall support the JPEG Compression Process 4.

Note

The DICOM conformance statement shall differentiate whether or not the implementation is capable of simply receiving or receiving and processing JPEG encoded images (see PS3.2).

The use of the DICOM Encapsulated Format to support JPEG Compressed Pixel Data requires that the Data Elements that are related to the Pixel Data encoding (e.g., Photometric Interpretation, Samples per Pixel, Planar Configuration, Bits Allocated, Bits Stored, High Bit, Pixel Representation, Rows, Columns, etc.) shall contain values that are consistent with the characteristics of the compressed data stream.

The requirements when using a Standard Photometric Interpretation (i.e., a Defined Term from Section C.7.6.3.1.2 in PS3.3 ) are specified in Table 8.2.1-1 and Table 8.2.1-2. No other Standard Photometric Interpretation values shall be used.

Table 8.2.1-1. Valid Values of Pixel Data Related Attributes for JPEG Lossy Transfer Syntaxes using Standard Photometric Interpretations

Photometric Interpretation

Transfer Syntax

Transfer Syntax UID

Samples per Pixel

Planar Configuration

Pixel Representation

Bits Allocated

Bits Stored

High Bit

MONOCHROME1

MONOCHROME2

JPEG Baseline

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.50

1

absent

0

8

8

7

MONOCHROME1

MONOCHROME2

JPEG Extended

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.51

1

absent

0

8

8

7

MONOCHROME1

MONOCHROME2

JPEG Extended

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.51

1

absent

0

16

12

11

YBR_FULL_422

JPEG Baseline

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.50

3

0

0

8

8

7


Table 8.2.1-2. Valid Values of Pixel Data Related Attributes for JPEG Lossless Transfer Syntaxes using Standard Photometric Interpretations

Photometric Interpretation

Transfer Syntax

Transfer Syntax UID

Samples per Pixel

Planar Configuration

Pixel Representation

Bits Allocated

Bits Stored

High Bit

MONOCHROME1

MONOCHROME2

JPEG Lossless, Non-Hierarchical

JPEG Lossless, Non-Hierarchical, SV1

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.57

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.70

1

absent

0 or 1

8 or 16

1-16

0-15

PALETTE COLOR

JPEG Lossless, Non-Hierarchical

JPEG Lossless, Non-Hierarchical, SV1

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.57

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.70

1

absent

0

8 or 16

1-16

0-15

YBR_FULL

RGB

JPEG Lossless, Non-Hierarchical

JPEG Lossless, Non-Hierarchical, SV1

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.57

1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.70

3

0

0

8 or 16

1-16

0-15


The Pixel Data characteristics included in the JPEG Interchange Format shall be used to decode the compressed data stream.

If APP2 marker segments with an identifier of "ICC_PROFILE" (as defined in Annex B of [ISO 15076-1]) are present in the compressed data stream, their concatenated value shall be identical to the value of ICC Profile (0028,2000) Attribute, if present, excluding padding.

Note

  1. These requirements were formerly specified in terms of the "uncompressed pixel data from which the compressed data stream was derived". However, since the form of the "original" uncompressed data stream could vary between different implementations, this requirement is now specified in terms of consistency with what is encapsulated.

    When decompressing, should the characteristics explicitly specified in the compressed data stream (e.g., spatial subsampling or number of components or planar configuration) be inconsistent with those specified in the DICOM Data Elements, those explicitly specified in the compressed data stream should be used to control the decompression. The DICOM data elements, if inconsistent, can be regarded as suggestions as to the form in which an uncompressed Data Set might be encoded, subject to the general and IOD-specific rules for uncompressed Photometric Interpretation and Planar Configuration, which may require that decompressed data be converted to one of the permitted forms.

  2. Those characteristics not explicitly specified in the compressed data stream (e.g., the color space of the compressed components, which is not specified in the JPEG Interchange Format), or implied by the definition of the compression scheme (e.g., always unsigned in JPEG), can therefore be determined from the DICOM Data Element in the enclosing Data Set. For example a Photometric Interpretation of "YBR_FULL_422" would describe the color space that is commonly used to lossy compress images using JPEG. It is unusual to use an RGB color space for lossy compression, since no advantage is taken of correlation between the red, green and blue components (e.g., of luminance), and poor compression is achieved.

  3. The JPEG Interchange Format is distinct from the JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF). The JPEG Interchange Format is defined in [ISO/IEC 10918-1] section 4.9.1, and refers to the inclusion of decoding tables, as distinct from the "abbreviated format" in which these tables are not sent (and the decoder is assumed to already have them). The JPEG Interchange Format does NOT specify the color space. The JPEG File Interchange Format, not part of the original JPEG standard, but defined in [ECMA TR-098] and [ISO/IEC 10918-5], is often used to store JPEG bit streams in consumer format files, and does include the ability to specify the color space of the components. The JFIF APP0 marker segment is NOT required to be present in DICOM encapsulated JPEG bit streams, and should not be relied upon to recognize the color space. Its presence is not forbidden (unlike the JP2 information for JPEG 2000 Transfer Syntaxes), but it is recommended that it be absent.

  4. Should the compression process be incapable of encoding a particular form of pixel data representation (e.g., JPEG cannot encode signed integers, only unsigned integers), then ideally only the appropriate form should be "fed" into the compression process. However, for certain characteristics described in DICOM Data Elements but not explicitly described in the compressed data stream (such as Pixel Representation), then the DICOM Data Element should be considered to describe what has been compressed (e.g., the pixel data really is to be interpreted as signed if Pixel Representation so specifies).

  5. DICOM Data Elements should not describe characteristics that are beyond the capability of the compression scheme used. For example, JPEG lossy processes are limited to 12 bits, hence the value of Bits Stored should be 12 or less. Bits Allocated is irrelevant, and is likely to be constrained by the Information Object Definition in PS3.3 to values of 8 or 16. Also, JPEG compressed data streams are always color-by-pixel and should be specified as such (a decoder can essentially ignore this element however as the value for JPEG compressed data is already known).

  6. If JPEG Compressed Pixel Data is decompressed and re-encoded in Native (uncompressed) form, then the Data Elements that are related to the Pixel Data encoding are updated accordingly. If color components are converted from YBR_FULL_422 to RGB during decompression and Native re-encoding, the Photometric Interpretation will be changed to RGB in the Data Set with the Native encoding.

DICOM PS3.5 2018e - Data Structures and Encoding