DICOM PS3.5 2017d - Data Structures and Encoding

PS3.5

DICOM PS3.5 2017d - Data Structures and Encoding

DICOM Standards Committee


Table of Contents

Notice and Disclaimer
Foreword
1. Scope and Field of Application
2. Normative References
3. Definitions
3.1. Reference Model Definitions
3.2. ACSE Service Definitions
3.3. Presentation Service Definitions
3.4. Object Identification Definitions
3.5. DICOM Introduction and Overview Definitions
3.6. DICOM Conformance Definitions
3.7. DICOM Information Object Definitions
3.8. DICOM Service Class Specifications Definitions
3.9. DICOM Network Communication Support For Message Exchange Definitions
3.10. DICOM Data Structures and Encoding Definitions
3.11. Character Handling Definitions
4. Symbols and Abbreviations
5. Conventions
6. Value Encoding
6.1. Support of Character Repertoires
6.1.1. Representation of Encoded Character Values
6.1.2. Graphic Characters
6.1.2.1. Default Character Repertoire
6.1.2.2. Extension or Replacement of the Default Character Repertoire
6.1.2.3. Encoding of Character Repertoires
6.1.2.4. Code Extension Techniques
6.1.2.5. Usage of Code Extension
6.1.2.5.1. Assumed Initial States
6.1.2.5.2. Restrictions for Code Extension
6.1.2.5.3. Requirements
6.1.2.5.4. Levels of Implementation and Initial Designation
6.1.3. Control Characters
6.2. Value Representation (VR)
6.2.1. Person Name (PN) Value Representation
6.2.1.1. Examples of PN VR and Notes
6.2.1.2. Ideographic and Phonetic Characters in Data Elements with VR of PN
6.2.2. Unknown (UN) Value Representation
6.2.3. URI/URL (UR) Value Representation
6.3. Enumerated Values and Defined Terms
6.4. Value Multiplicity (VM) and Delimitation
7. The Data Set
7.1. Data Elements
7.1.1. Data Element Fields
7.1.2. Data Element Structure with Explicit VR
7.1.3. Data Element Structure with Implicit VR
7.2. Group Length
7.3. Little Endian Byte Ordering
7.4. Data Element Type
7.4.1. Type 1 Required Data Elements
7.4.2. Type 1C Conditional Data Elements
7.4.3. Type 2 Required Data Elements
7.4.4. Type 2C Conditional Data Elements
7.4.5. Type 3 Optional Data Elements
7.4.6. Data Element Types Within A Sequence
7.5. Nesting of Data Sets
7.5.1. Item Encoding Rules
7.5.2. Delimitation of The Sequence of Items
7.5.3. Sequence Inheritance
7.6. Repeating Groups
7.7. Retired Data Elements
7.8. Private Data Elements
7.8.1. Private Data Element Tags
7.8.2. Encoding of Private Elements
8. Encoding of Pixel, Overlay and Waveform Data
8.1. Pixel and Overlay Data, and Related Data Elements
8.1.1. Pixel Data Encoding of Related Data Elements
8.1.2. Overlay Data Encoding of Related Data Elements
8.2. Native or Encapsulated Format Encoding
8.2.1. JPEG Image Compression
8.2.2. Run Length Encoding Image Compression
8.2.3. JPEG-LS Image Compression
8.2.4. JPEG 2000 Image Compression
8.2.5. MPEG2 Main Profile / Main Level Video Compression
8.2.6. MPEG2 Main Profile / High Level Video Compression
8.2.7. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.1 Video Compression
8.2.8. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.2 Video Compression
8.2.9. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 Stereo High Profile / Level 4.2 Video Compression
8.2.10. HEVC/H.265 Main Profile / Level 5.1 Video Compression
8.2.11. HEVC/H.265 Main 10 Profile / Level 5.1 Video Compression
8.2.12. Constraints for Audio Data Integration in AVC and HEVC Compressed Bit Streams
8.3. Waveform Data and Related Data Elements
8.4. Pixel Data Provider Service
8.4.1. JPIP Referenced Pixel Data
9. Unique Identifiers (UIDs)
9.1. UID Encoding Rules
9.2. Unique Identifier Registration
9.2.1. DICOM Defined and Registered Unique Identifiers
9.2.2. Privately Defined Unique Identifiers
10. Transfer Syntax
10.1. DICOM Default Transfer Syntax
10.2. Transfer Syntax for a DICOM Default of Lossless JPEG Compression
10.3. Transfer Syntaxes for a DICOM Default of Lossy JPEG Compression
10.4. Transfer Syntax For DICOM RLE Image Compression
10.5. Transfer Syntax For A DICOM Default of Lossless and Lossy (Near-lossless) JPEG-LS Compression
10.6. Transfer Syntax For JPEG 2000 Compression
10.7. Transfer Syntax For MPEG2 Main Profile / Main Level Video Compression
10.8. Transfer Syntax For JPIP Referenced Pixel Data
10.9. Transfer Syntax For MPEG2 Main Profile / High Level Video Compression
10.10. Transfer Syntax For MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.1 Video Compression
10.11. Transfer Syntaxes for MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.2 Video Compression
10.12. Transfer Syntax For MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 Stereo High Profile / Level 4.2 Video Compression
10.13. Transfer Syntax for HEVC/H.265 Main Profile / Level 5.1 Video Compression
10.14. Transfer Syntax for HEVC/H.265 Main 10 Profile / Level 5.1 Video Compression
A. Transfer Syntax Specifications (Normative)
A.1. DICOM Implicit VR Little Endian Transfer Syntax
A.2. DICOM Little Endian Transfer Syntax (Explicit VR)
A.3. DICOM Big Endian Transfer Syntax (Explicit VR)
A.4. Transfer Syntaxes For Encapsulation of Encoded Pixel Data
A.4.1. JPEG Image Compression
A.4.2. RLE Image Compression
A.4.3. JPEG-LS Image Compression
A.4.4. JPEG 2000 Image Compression
A.4.5. MPEG2 Video Compression
A.4.6. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.1 Video Compression
A.4.7. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.2 Video Compression
A.4.8. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 Stereo High Profile / Level 4.2 Video Compression
A.4.9. HEVC/H.265 Main Profile / Level 5.1 Video Compression
A.4.10. HEVC/H.265 Main 10 Profile / Level 5.1 Video Compression
A.5. DICOM Deflated Little Endian Transfer Syntax (Explicit VR)
A.6. DICOM JPIP Referenced Transfer Syntax (Explicit VR)
A.7. DICOM JPIP Referenced Deflate Transfer Syntax (Explicit VR)
B. Creating a Privately Defined Unique Identifier (Informative)
B.1. Organizationally Derived UID
B.2. UUID Derived UID
C. DICOM Unique Identifier Registration Process (Informative)
D. Examples of Various Pixel Data and Overlay Encoding Schemes (Informative)
D.1. Detailed Example of Pixel Data Encoding
D.2. Various Additional Examples of Pixel and Overlay Data Cells
D.3. Examples of Float and Double Float Pixel Data
E. DICOM Default Character Repertoire (Normative)
F. Encapsulated Images As Part of A DICOM Message (Informative)
F.1. Encapsulated JPEG Encoded Images
F.2. Encapsulated JPEG-LS Encoded Images
F.3. Encapsulated JPEG 2000 Encoded Images
G. Encapsulated RLE Compressed Images (Normative)
G.1. Summary
G.2. Byte Segments
G.3. The RLE Algorithm
G.3.1. The RLE Encoder
G.3.2. The RLE Decoder
G.4. Organization of RLE Compressed Frame
G.5. RLE Header Format
G.6. Example of Elements For An Encoded YCbCr RLE Three-frame Image with Basic Offset Table
H. Character Sets and Person Name Value Representation in the Japanese Language (Informative)
H.1. Character Sets for the Japanese Language
H.1.1. JIS X 0201
H.1.2. JIS X 0208
H.1.3. JIS X 0212
H.2. Internet Practice
H.3. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Japanese Language
H.3.1. Value 1 of Attribute Specific Character Set (0008,0005) is Not Present.
H.3.2. Value 1 of Attribute Specific Character Set (0008,0005) is ISO 2022 IR 13.
I. Character Sets and Person Name Value Representation in the Korean Language (Informative)
I.1. Character Sets For The Korean Language in DICOM
I.2. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Korean Language
I.3. Example of Long Text Value Representation in the Korean Language Without Explicit Escape Sequences Between Character Sets
J. Character Sets and Person Name Value Representation using Unicode UTF-8, GB18030 and GBK (Informative)
J.1. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Chinese Language Using Unicode
J.2. Example of Long Text Value Representation in the Chinese Language Using Unicode
J.3. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Chinese Language Using GB18030
J.4. Example of Long Text Value Representation in the Chinese Language Using GB18030
J.5. Person Name Value Representation in Other Languages Using Unicode
K. Character Sets and Person Name Value Representation in the Chinese Language with Code Extensions (Informative)
K.1. Character Sets for the Chinese Language in DICOM
K.2. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Chinese Language
K.3. Example of Long Text Value Representation in the Chinese Language with GB2312 G1

List of Figures

7.1-1. DICOM Data Set and Data Element Structures
D-1. An Image Pixel Plane
D-2. Encoding (Packing) of Arbitrary Pixel Data with a VR of OW
D-3. Example Pixel Cells
D-4. Example Pixel Cells Packed into 16-bit Words (VR = OW)
D-5. Example Pixel Cells Byte Ordered in Memory (VR = OW)
D-6. Sample Pixel Data Byte Streams (VR = OW)
D-7. Sample Pixel Data Byte Streams for 8-bits Allocated and 8-bits Stored (VR = OW)
D-8. Sample Pixel Data Byte Streams for 8-bits Allocated and 8-bits Stored (Explicit VR = OB)
D.2-1. Example 1 of Pixel and Overlay Data Cells
D.2-3. Example 3 of Pixel and Overlay Data Cells
D.2-4. Example 4 of Overlay Data Cells
D.2-5. Example 5 of Single Bit Pixel Data Cells (VR=OW)
D.3-1. Sample Float Pixel Data Byte Streams for VR = OF
D.3-2. Sample Float Pixel Data Byte Streams for VR = OD

List of Tables

6.1-1. DICOM Control Characters and Their Encoding
6.2-1. DICOM Value Representations
7.1-1. Data Element with Explicit VR of OB, OD, OF, OL, OW, SQ, UC, UR, UT or UN
7.1-2. Data Element with Explicit VR other than as shown in Table 7.1-1
7.1-3. Data Element with Implicit VR
7.5-1. Example of a Data Element with Implicit VR Defined as a Sequence of Items (VR = SQ) with Three Items of Explicit Length
7.5-2. Example of a Data Element with Explicit VR Defined as a Sequence of Items (VR = SQ) of Undefined Length, Containing Two Items of Explicit Length
7.5-3. Example of a Data Element with Implicit VR Defined as a Sequence of Items (VR = SQ) of Undefined Length, Containing Two Items Where One Item is of Explicit Length and the Other Item is of Undefined Length
8.2.1-1. Valid Values of Pixel Data Related Attributes for JPEG Lossy Transfer Syntaxes using Standard Photometric Interpretations
8.2.1-2. Valid Values of Pixel Data Related Attributes for JPEG Lossless Transfer Syntaxes using Standard Photometric Interpretations
8.2.2-1. Valid Values of Pixel Data Related Attributes for RLE Compression using Standard Photometric Interpretations
8.2.3-1. Valid Values of Pixel Data Related Attributes for JPEG-LS Compression using Standard Photometric Interpretations
8.2.4-1. Valid Values of Pixel Data Related Attributes for JPEG 2000 Transfer Syntaxes using Standard Photometric Interpretations
8-1. MPEG2 Main Profile / Main Level Image Transfer Syntax Rows and Columns Attributes
8-2. MPEG2 Main Profile / High Level Image Transfer Syntax Frame Rate Attributes
8-3. Examples of MPEG2 Main Profile / High Level Screen Resolution
8-4. Values Permitted for MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 BD-compatible High Profile / Level 4.1
8-5. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.1 Image Transfer Syntax Frame Rate Attributes
8-7. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.2 Image Transfer Syntax Frame Rate Attributes
8-8. MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 High Profile / Level 4.2 Image Transfer Syntax Stereo Attributes
8.2.12-1. Allowed Audio Formats
A.4-1. Example for Elements of an Encoded Single-Frame Image Defined as a Sequence of Three Fragments Without Basic Offset Table Item Value
A.4-1b. Example for Elements of an Encoded Single-Frame Image Defined as a Sequence of Three Fragments Without Basic Offset Table Item Value (continued)
A.4-2. Examples of Elements for an Encoded Two-Frame Image Defined as a Sequence of Three Fragments with Basic Table Item Values
A.4-2b. Examples of Elements for an Encoded Two-Frame Image Defined as a Sequence of Three Fragments with Basic Table Item Values (continued)
A.4-3. DICOM Transfer Syntax UIDs for JPEG
E-1. DICOM Default Character Repertoire Encoding
F.1-1. JPEG Modes of Image Coding
F.1-2. Relationship Between the Lossy JPEG Huffman Coding Processes
F.1-5. Identification of JPEG Coding Processes in DICOM
G.4-1. Organization of RLE Compressed Frame
G.5-1. Ordering of the Offsets Within the RLE Header
G.6-1. Example of Elements for an Encoded YCbCr RLE Three-Frame Image with Basic Offset Table
G.6-1b. Example of Elements for an Encoded YCbCr RLE Three-Frame Image with Basic Offset Table (continued)
G.6-2. Example of Encoded YCbCr RLE Compressed Frame Item Value
H.1-1. ISO/IEC 2022 Escape Sequence for ISO-IR 13 and ISO-IR 14
H.1-2. ISO/IEC 2022 Escape Sequence for ISO-IR 87 and ISO-IR 159
H.2-1. Character Sets for the Japanese language in DICOM and Internet practice
H.2-2. Control Characters Supported in DICOM and Internet practice
H.3-1. Character Sets and Escape Sequences Used in Example 1
H.3-2. Character Sets and Escape Sequences Used in Example 2
I.1-1. ISO/IEC 2022 Escape Sequence for ISO-IR 149
I.3-1. Character Sets and Escape Sequences Used in the Examples
K.1-1. ISO/IEC 2022 Escape Sequence for ISO-IR 58
K.3-1. Character Sets and Escape Sequences used in the Examples of Person Name

List of Examples

H.3-1. Value 1 of Attribute Specific Character Set (0008,0005) is Not Present
H.3-2. Value 1 of Attribute Specific Character Set (0008,0005) is ISO 2022 IR 13
I.2-1. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Korean Language
I.3-1. Example of Long Text Value Representation in the Korean Language Without Explicit Escape Sequences Between Character Sets
J.1-1. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Chinese Language Using Unicode
J.2-1. Example of Long Text Value Representation in the Chinese Language Using Unicode
J.3-1. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Chinese Language Using GB18030
J.4-1. Example of Long Text Value Representation in the Chinese Language Using GB18030
K.2-1. Example of Person Name Value Representation in the Chinese Language
K.3-1. Example of Long Text Value Representation in the Chinese Language with GB2312 G1
DICOM PS3.5 2017d - Data Structures and Encoding